Mechanical Engineering Research Day 2015 > Proceedings  Indexed by: 

Proceedings of Mechanical Engineering Research Day 2015


Pages 1-149 (March 2015)

Centre for Advanced Research on Energy


ISBN: 978-967-0257-51-8 (online)


This e-book is a compilation of papers presented at the Mechanical Engineering Research Day 2015 (MERD'15) - Melaka, Malaysia on 31 March 2015.




Pages i-iv

PDF (262 KB)


Editorial Board

Pages v

PDF (145 KB)


Organizing Committee

Pages vi

PDF (146 KB)


Table of Contents

Pages vii-xii

PDF (185 KB)

Theme 1: Advanced Materials Processing


Preliminary study of KNN thin films doped by rare-earths for sensor applications.
Pages 1-2
M.H. Maziati Akmal, A.U. Al-Amani, A.R. Mohd Warikh, A. Nurul Azuwa
PDF (216 KB)

Among ferroelectrics systems, potassium sodium niobate (KNN) has drawn much attention due to a clear-cut advantage of high piezoelectric and ferroelectric performances. The volatility of alkaline element (K,Na) is
detrimental to the stoichiometry of KNN, contributing to the formation of intrinsic defects.  Thus, the primary goal of this study is to design a solution to overcome the volatility issue of KNN. Introduction of rare-earth cations in the host KNN could reduce the vacancies in KNN. Currently, three arrays of dopants were integrated into KNN.  In this preliminary work, a sol-gel technique was employed to produce a thin film that can be utilized later in the sensor applications. The structural and electrical properties were characterized using Raman spectroscopy and 2-point probe equipment, respectively. The typical Raman spectra of KNN thin films were shifted towards lower or higher wavenumbers depending on the cations deficiencies or redundancies. The conductivity of thin films was found to be increased as the dopant concentration was increased.



Effect of pineapple leaf fiber loading on the properties of pineapple leaf fiber-polypropylene composite.
Pages 3-4
A.N. Kasim, M.Z. Selamat, N. Aznan, S.N. Sahadan, M.A.M. Daud, S. Salleh, R. Jumaidin 
PDF (345 KB)

Nowadays, the natural fibers are widely used in FRP composite especially as automotive interior parts because it is much cheaper and natural availability compare to glass fiber and carbon fiber. This paper discusses the effects of pineapple leaf fiber (PLF) loading on the mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fiber/polypropylene (PLF/PP) composite. An alkaline treatment was conducted to enhance the PLF properties before the formation process of PLF/PP composite. The mechanical properties of PLF/PP composite were determined using tensile test, hardness test, density measurement and microstructure analysis. The result of PLF/PP composite with a composition of 30/70 showed the best mechanical properties comparable to others composition ratios.



Investigation of the stress conditions of U-bend 316L stainless steel after performing cold mechanical process.
Pages 5-6
W.M.F.W. Mohamad, M.Z. Selamat, B. Bunjali, H.M. Dom
PDF (276 KB)

This study reports on the investigation of the stress conditions of the U-bend 316L stainless steel through the cold mechanical process, starting with cold rolling of 0 up to 50% reduction in thickness and then, bending. The stress conditions; such as applied and residual stresses of the U-bend steel were obtained experimentally from the bending stress-strain curves and resulted curvature. It was found that the applied and residual stress has a higher value in the steel with a 30% cold reduction, which was about 257 MPa and 240 MPa, respectively.  



Comparison of thermal conductivity for HHT-24 CNF-based nanofluid using deionized water and ethylene glycol as based fluid.
Pages 7-8
N.S. Zaini, S.N. Syed Idrus, N. Abdullah, M.H.M. Husin, I.S. Mohamad
PDF (389 KB)

Nanofluid are widely used in industrial applications due to their high thermal conductivity. In this experiments, thermal conductivity of various ratio carbon nanofiber based-nanofluid both in ethylene glycol and deionized water were investigated. The thermal conductivity of 1.0% CNF volume concentration at 400C for deionized water-based is 0.745 W/m.K while ethylene glycol-based is 0.349 W/m.K. It shows that deionized water-based recorded higher thermal conductivity compared to ethylene glycol-based. This is due to the effect of some parameter such as particle volume fraction, size and the temperature of thermal conductivity.



The effect of nanocarbon characteristics on enhancing thermal properties of nanofluids.
Pages 9-10
S. Zainal Abidin, I.S. Mohamad, N. Abdullah, A.Y. Bani Hashim
PDF (322 KB)

The different in nanocarbon structure may result in thermal conductivities performance. In this research, the understanding about the behavior and characteristic of different types of nanocarbon are investigated. The morphology and functionalized-group attachment on the nanocarbon surface were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR). The thermal conductivity testing were performed to select the best CNT which can possess a good thermal properties. The result shows that the CNT3 (HHT24) has the higher thermal conductivity enhancement.



Thermal properties and heat transfer study of dispersed fluid with functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) particles.
Pages 11-12
N. Zahari, M.R.H. Noor Salim, I.S. Mohamad, N. Abdullah, S. Thiru
PDF (272 KB)

Water, ethylene glycol and engine oil are commonly used in heat exchanger applications as coolant. However, these fluids possess low thermal conductivity. The advancement in nanotechnology has enabled nano-size particles to be included in a base fluid and this is known as nanofluids. The aim of this study is to investigate the most stable and homogeneous nanofluids with different weight percentage that produced excellent result in thermal properties and heat transfer characteristics. For this study, the usage of MWCNT as nanoparticles and deionized water as based fluids with surfactant were investigated for their stability and thermal properties. Different temperature and particle volume concentration were used in this study and this will affect the thermal conductivity, viscosity and specific heat as well as the heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids. As a result, the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of nanofluids were increased when the temperature and particle volume concentration increased. Besides that, the viscosity of nanofluids seem to decreased when temperature was increased but not for its particle concentration.



Effect of process variables on the tensile shear strength of spot welds in 6061-T6 aluminum alloy.
Pages 13-14
S.Thiru, Siti Hajar Ahmad Razin, S. Hema, I.S. Mohamad 
PDF (340 KB)

The changes in mechanical and metallurgical behavior of spot welded region generally occur throughout the spot welding process and these changes are very significant for the safety and quality of the welded joints. Due to the influence of current flow, the squeezing time and the load applied on electrodes have a vital effect on the mechanical properties. This paper presents the effect of such parameters on the tensile shear strength of single lap spot welded 6061-T6 aluminium alloy. Two level four factor fractional factorial design was employed to develop mathematical models. It was found that change in weld thickness and current are the primary parameters that control the tensile shear behavior of the spot welds.



Charpy impact response of oil palm empty fruit brunch fiber reinforced metal laminate system.
Pages 15-16
Fadzila Hussain, D. Sivakumar, S. Kathiravan, Mohd Ahadlin Mohd Daud
PDF (230 KB)

The low velocity impact response of novel oil palm empty fruit brunch fiber reinforced metal laminates system has been investigated. The specimens were tested using a pendulum impact tester according to ASTM E-23 in a flatwise direction. Impact resistances of the fiber metal laminates were benchmarked with monolithic aluminum. The main failure mechanism after impact had been investigated with detailed microscopic observation. Finally, it was found that energy absorption of aluminum is higher than fiber metal laminates.



Thermal performance of carbon-based microencapsulated phase change materials.
Pages 17-18
A.Z.I. Abdullah, M.F.B. Abdollah, B.T. Tee, H. Amiruddin, A.K. Mat Yamin, N. Tamaldin
PDF (285 KB)

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of carbon-based materials for the thermal performance of microencapsulated phase change material (µPCM). The sample was prepared separately by mixing 5 wt.% of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) and 5 wt.% Expanded Graphite (EG) with µPCM using a powder metallurgy technique. The mixed powder was then compacted into a disc with a diameter of 45 mm and thickness of 5 mm using a hot compaction technique. The thermal performance was tested according to the ASTM standard. It was found that the addition of MWCNT into µPCM can absorb heat effectively as compared to pure µPCM and µPCM/EG composite. 

Theme 2: Automotive Engineering


Fabrication and testing of energy regenerative suspension.
Pages 19-20
M.A. Abdullah, J.F. Jamil, N.S. Muhammad
PDF (254 KB)

The research and development of the energy alternative for automotive industry is important as the world is demanding on the energy efficient vehicle (EEV). The use of hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle is one of the steps to the EEV vehicle which using alternative way other than using fuels to propel the vehicle. This research emphasizes the development of energy regenerative suspension system (EReSS) as the energy harvesting system for wasted energy on the vertical vibration in the suspension system of a vehicle. The EReSS is fabricated and tested on the laboratory experimentation. 


Experimental validation of single cylinder diesel engine using engine simulation tools. 
Pages 21-22
M.H. Ahmad, N. Tamaldin, A.K. Mat Yamin, S.C. Lee
PDF (127 KB)

This paper show the experiment validation of single cylinder diesel engine deals with performance used biodiesel as a fuel. The LES was used to validate the experiment. The biodiesel used in the experiment was the B5 biodiesel which was 5% palm biodiesel and 95% diesel fuel. The engine speed was varied from 1500 to 3500 rpm The data from the experiment was stimulate in the LES for validate with the experiment data. The density and calorific value of the B5 biodiesel fuel is tuned in the simulation. The performances (power and torque) were compared with the simulation result. The results showed that the data from experiment and simulation have minor percentage error but the pattern of the graph of torque and power were same.



Formula varsity race car - Roll dynamic analysis.

Pages 23-24
M.A. Abdullah, J. F. Jamil, N. Ismail, M.Z. Mohammad Nasir, M.Z. Hassan
PDF (368 KB)

This paper presents the roll dynamic analysis of a Formula Varsity (FV) race car. The analysis is performed to study the stability and the dynamics of the race car including roll moment. The data for the dynamic analysis is recorded using Lego Mindstorms gyro sensor and analyzed using Matlab/SIMULINK software. Side drop test and cornering experiment at low speed are performed. The data recorded is analyzed. Based on the results, the dynamic performance of the race car can be demonstrated. The responses from cornering experiments can be used to identify the parameters of stiffness and damping of the car. The parameters of the car can be tuned to produce better dynamic performance for racing.


Driving assistance system – Automatic parking maneuver using Lego Mindstorms.

Pages 25-26

M.A. Abdullah, M.A. Romeli, F.R. Ramli, M.K. Mohamed Nor
PDF (447 KB)

In this paper a conceptual driving assistance system for automatic parking is developed and tested using Lego Mindstorms. A scaled model car is assembled using Lego Mindstorms parts. Using basic yes-no sequences in the parking maneuver flow, the car is programmed to measure a parking space and park automatically (side parking). Based on the successful performance of the parking, the conceptual automatic parking is possible to be improved for actual car. 



Autonomous vehicle convoy using Lego Mindstorms.

Pages 27-28
M.A. Abdullah, M.A. Azan, F.R. Ramli, M.K. Mohamed Nor Ramli, M.K. Mohamed Nor
PDF (304 KB)

The low velocity impact response of novel oil palm empty fruit brunch fiber reinforced metal laminates system has been investigated. The specimens were tested using a pendulum impact tester according to ASTM E-23 in a flatwise direction. Impact resistances of the fiber metal laminates were benchmarked with monolithic aluminum. The main failure mechanism after impact had been investigated with detailed microscopic observation. Finally, it was found that energy absorption of aluminum is higher than fiber metal laminates.



The effect of different thickness material stacking for four layer spot welding.

Pages 29-30
Mohd Harris Fadhilah, Nur Fatihah Madi
PDF (363 KB)

Spot welding is a common metal joining process in automotive industries. At actual production line, resistance spot welding of four layer metal sheet generally is more challenging than spot welding of three layers metal sheet, especially for welding gun optimization plan. This report intended to research the mechanical properties of four layer welded sheets of different thickness. In this research, the strength on the tensile shear-test of lap joint in spot welding of 2.80mm, 3.50mm and 4.4mm thickness of four layer welded sheet were investigated. All the results were then compared with three layer of welded sheet with thickness 2.80mm which was set as the benchmark.



Pneumatic gear shifter analysis.

Pages 31-32
M.A. Abdullah, M.A. Mohd Ahyak, M.A.I. Abd Hamid, F.R. Ramli, S.A. Shamsudin

PDF (340 KB)

Spot welding is a common metal joining process in automotive industries. At actual production line, resistance spot welding of four layer metal sheet generally is more challenging than spot welding of three layers metal sheet, especially for welding gun optimization plan. This report intended to research the mechanical properties of four layer welded sheets of different thickness. In this research, the strength on the tensile shear-test of lap joint in spot welding of 2.80mm, 3.50mm and 4.4mm thickness of four layer welded sheet were investigated. All the results were then compared with three layer of welded sheet with thickness 2.80mm which was set as the benchmark.

Theme 3: Computational Modeling and Analysis & CAD / CAE


Taguchi modeling of process parameters in VDG-MOSFET device for higher ION/IOFF ratio. 

Pages 33-34
K.E. Kaharudin, A.H. Hamidon, F. Salehuddin
PDF (341 KB)

The miniaturization in the size of planar MOSFET device seems to be limited when it reaches to 22nm technology node. The most common approach to overcome this problem is to replace silicon dioxide (SiO2) and polysilicon with high-k dielectric material and metal gate respectively. However, in this paper, the vertical double gate architecture of MOSFET device with ultrathin pillar was introduced by keeping both silicon dioxide (SiO2) and polysilicon as the main materials. The proposed MOSFET architecture was known as Ultrathin Pillar Vertical Double Gate (VDG) MOSFET device and it was integrated with polysilicon-on-insulator (POI) technology for a superior electrical performance. The virtual device’s fabrication and characterization were done by using ATHENA and ATLAS modules of SILVACO Internationals. The process parameters of the device were then optimized by utilizing L27 orthogonal array of Taguchi method in order to obtain the highest value of drive current (ION) and the lowest value of leakage current (IOFF). The highest value of ION/IOFF ratio was observed to be 2.154x 1012. Whereas the nominal threshold voltage (VTH), drive current (ION), leakage current (IOFF) and sub-threshold swing (SS) were observed to be 0.437 V (±12.7% of 0.447 V), 701.9 µA/µm, 9.374 x 1016 A/µm and 63.66 mV/dec respectively. These results are well within the prediction value of International Technology Roadmap Semiconductor (ITRS) 2013 for low power (LP) multi-gate (MG) technology requirement in year 2020.


Inline pin fin heat sink model and thermal performance analysis for central processing unit.

Pages 35-36

Khalil Azha Mohd Annuar, Fatimah Sham Ismail, Mohamad Haniff Harun, Mohamad Firdaus Mohd Ab Halim
PDF (606 KB)

The thermal management issue is common in electronic products such as computers, projectors and others. The trend shows that by increasing the power density, indirectly it will increase the temperature and power dissipation in CPU processor. This is a major challenge to the product designer of electronics cooling system to find an alternative technique to solve the problem. Therefore, in order to control and minimize the heat produced by the CPU’s processor, the conventional external heat sink is added to the overall thermal management mechanism. In this paper, 3D simulation inline pin fin heat sink is designed using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The outcome of this study hopefully can shed some light on how to optimize inline pin fin arrangement heat sink design.



Stress level on sustainable vibration isolator using numerical method.

Pages 37-38

M.A. Salim, S. N. Jamaluddin, A. Putra, M.A. Abdullah

PDF (266 KB)

This paper represents the stress distributions study on sustainable vibration isolator using numerical method. Rubber materials were used and modeled because it is a hyperelastic material and it also accepted as an isotropic and incrompressible behavior. Mooney-Rivlin model were used to investigate the stress and strain indicator. Numerical analysis were chosen as a tools to model the sustainable vibration isolator due to stress distributions. According to the analysis, by increase the number of metal plate, it was found that the deformation is reduced, however the stress distributions become higher.



The effect of diffuser angle on modified generic side view mirror.

Pages 39-40

Nur Rashid bin Mat Nuri, Abdul Rahman bin Mohd Nasir, Mohd Suffian bin Ab Razak

PDF (471 KB)

In this paper, an aerodynamics effect of modified generic side view mirror with different diffuser angle, fix foot height and constant foot width are discussed. The numerical simulation is done by using Hyperworks software. The results obtained are discussed in term of drag coefficient, turbulence separated region and pressure distribution around the side mirror and at side mirror surface. With all these results, the effect of different diffuser angle on modified generic side view mirror has been understood. 



Design from nature: Development of a database to support product development.

Pages 41-42

S.F. Wong, S. Maidin

PDF (431 KB)

Although biomimetic is a good source of ideas for design, however it is not widely used. This is due to lack of systematic process for engineers to find biological analogies related to the design problem and to transfer knowledge of biological design to engineering problem. Besides, the biological design feature information is scattered. In order to ensure there is a design aid tool to solve human challenges in terms of solving complex design problem and challenges, this research proposed a database with biomimetic design feature information. Questionnaire survey was carried out with 35 final year Department of Design students to test the functionality, usability and their satisfaction of the database. It was found that the database assist them by providing various visual design features that could be adopted from nature to solve design problem and improve creativity in product design.


Study of electrical characteristic for 50nm and 10nm SOI body thickness in MOSFET device.

Pages 43-44

M.N.I.A. Aziz, F. Salehuddin, A.S.M. Zain, K.E. Kaharuddin

PDF (199 KB)

Silicon on insulator (SOI) technology is an effective approach of mitigating the short channel effect (SCE) problems. The SOI is believed to be capable of suppressing the SCEs, thereby improves the overall electrical characteristics of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) device. SCE in SOI MOSFET are heavily influenced by thin film thickness, thin-film doping density, buried oxide thickness and etc. This paper will analyze the effect of buried oxide layer thickness (BOX) towards SOI MOSFET device. The 50nm and 10nm thickness of buried oxide in SOI MOSFET was developed by using SILVACO TCAD tools. From the observation made, the electrical characteristic of 50nm BOX thickness is slightly better than 10nm. It is observed that the value drive current (ION) of 10nm BOX thickness SOI MOSFET was only 6.9% lower than 50nm. However, the electrical characteristics of 10nm BOX thickness SOI MOSFET are still in the range of ITRS 2013 prediction.



Redesign of automotive brake pedal based on castability analysis.

Pages 45-46

M.N. Sudin, F.R. Ramli, S.A. Shamsuddin, M.M. Tahir, M.M. Mustafa, M.A. Affan  

PDF (175 KB)

Change of automotive component material for any particular purposed (i.e. weight reduction, cost reduction) may affect the manufacturing process which will influence the final geometry of product. For this reason, an original automotive brake pedal that was initially made of steel was substituted with aluminum alloy and aim to be manufactured by casting process. In this research, the design review and modification on the brake pedal was carried out based on the casting rules. Initial castability evaluation on the original and modified brake pedal design was carried out using Ansys FLUENT simulation software. The results of the study show that changes on the design features of an original brake pedal were necessary as to improve its castability.

Theme 4: Energy Management & Fuels and Lubricants


Energy audit for lighting in an academic building – Case study in UTeM.

Pages 47-48
Younus Fahad Breesam, B.T. Tee, Z.M. Zulfattah  
PDF (408 KB)

Lighting is essential for both domestic and industry usage. In Malaysia, it was estimated lighting used approximately 20% of the total energy total consumption of buildings and has potential for energy saving opportunities and achieves energy efficiency apart from good operational Energy audit is a tool used to assess and identify lighting energy consumption in the specified building or area. In this project, the energy audit focuses on the lighting systems in a FKM academic building at Technology Campus. By understanding the current lighting system condition and energy data analysis, It can help in evaluating the current performance of the lighting system. Energy reprofit is proposed to accommodate the occupant usial confort and performance. Mostly the lighting levels in every audited zone exceed Malaysian Standard MS 1525:2014.



Energy analysis on ACMV system for an academic building – Case study in UTeM.

Pages 49-50
Ahmad Zubair Yahaya, B.T. Tee, Yusmady Mohamed Arifin
PDF (274 KB)

Air-conditioning mechanical & ventilation system (ACMV) is one of the main contributors to the total building energy consumption. Thus, building energy audit is conducted in order to measure and analyse energy consumption patterns, monitoring of how the energy used, how the system element interrelate and record actual energy consumption. The study has been conducted at FKM’s Building in UTeM’s Technology Campus. Based on the collected data and information, the total of the building cooling load is being estimated. In addition, the Building Energy Index is also being determined. Finally, economic analysis is included with potential alternative measures to achieve optimum building energy usage.



Preliminary study on tribological properties of banana peel broth as additive in paraffin oil.

Pages 51-52

M.M.B. Mustafa, N.A.B. Masripan, M.F.B. Abdollah, J. Basiron
PDF (622 KB)

Natural material as the additive in the engine oil promotes a sustainable material development through the utilization of renewable resources. This paper presents the preliminary study on the friction and wear of banana peel broth as the natural additive to the Paraffin oil conducted using four-ball tester at different load, temperature and speed. The mixture is prepared by dispersion method using the ultrasonic homogenizer. Inverted microscope is used to measure the wear scar diameter. It is found that the coefficient of friction and wear scar diameter reduced significantly at high load, temperature and speed.



Investigation on oxidation of jatropha oil.

Pages 53-54

A.M.H.S. Lubis, B. Ariwahjoedi, M.B. Sudin  
PDF (196 KB)

Oxidation is an undesired process in lubrication application. The application of jatropha oil as alternative lubricant base stock has emerged recently. However, the low resistance to oxidation of most natural plant seed oil has limited its application as lubricant. In this work, the oxidation of jatropha oil has been studied. The oil was oxidized by air bubbling method at 95±3°C for 72 hours in the presence of copper. The viscosity and functional group changes due to oxidation were studied before and after oxidation test. Jatropha oil was found oxidized by autoxidation mechanism to produce hydroperoxide, aldehyde and ketone which capable to increase viscosity of the oil.



Stability of nano-oil by pH control in stationary conditions.

Pages 55-56

H. Amiruddin, M.F.B. Abdollah, A.M. Idris, M.I.H.C. Abdullah, N. Tamaldin
PDF (255 KB)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the stability of nano-oil by pH control in stationary conditions. The nano-oil was prepared by dispersing an optimal composition of 0.5 vol.% 70 nm hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanoparticles in SAE 15W-40  diesel engine oil by sonication technique. Hydrochloric (HCl) acid and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) were used as a dispersing agent to determine the stability of the dispersion. The dispersion stability was evaluated by using the sedimentation method with the help of Ultra Violet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer. It was demonstrated that the suspension in the alkaline region with a pH value of 11 to 13 was stable over the period of 60 days.

Theme 5: Hydraulics and Pneumatics & Mechanical Control


Modeling for assessing the dynamic performance of pneumatic valve.

Pages 57-58
N.S. Osman, A.Y. Bani Hashim
PDF (519 KB)

The fundamental control system for an electro-pneumatic valve is explained where this work discusses of the mathematical model and MATLAB program used in controlling system of pneumatic valve. This paper presents an approach to assessment of the dynamics performance of pneumatic valves.



Precision control performances of a vertical motion electrostatic actuator stage with locking function.

Pages 59-60
M.M. Ghazaly, Y.P. Chin, K. Sato
PDF (403 KB)

The paper validates the effectiveness of the characteristic switching for a vertical motion electrostatic actuator stage with a holding function. The friction forces often deteriorate the response and positioning accuracy of a control system, especially when the lightweight electrode layers in the electrostatic actuator are supported by only lubricating oil. However, the contact condition between the electrodes can be changed by the attractive forces resulting from the driving signal waveforms. In this paper, the driving signal waveforms for switching between two frictional conditions are examined and clarified. The actuator exhibits a positioning error of less than 14 nm.



Force tracking control of MR damper and controller parameter optimization using sensitivity analysis method.

Pages 61-62
M.F. Md Isa, M.H. Harun, M.A. Abdullah, N.S. Muhammad
PDF (395 KB)

The objective of this paper is to optimize the control parameters of Magnetorheological (MR) damper under harmonic motion. The MR damper is modeled using parametric approach and Bouc-Wen model is chosen to represent MR damper model. Next, a control strategies using continuous state feedback controller is used to track the desired and actual force through B and G parameter. An optimization tool (sensitivity analysis) is used to determine the selection of controller parameter. Lastly force tracking control used to evaluate the performance of control strategies.

Theme 6: Mechanical Design and Optimization


Comparative study for material removal rate, surface finish and electrode wear rate on die sinking EDM.

Pages 63-64
H.H. El Grour, S. Maidin  
PDF (245 KB)

The electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of non-conventional machining process where the erosion of the work piece take place based on the thermal energy between the electrode and the work piece. Two different work piece materials (copper and aluminum) was machined using die sinking EDM to study the characteristics of each material using copper electrode. The experiments conducted under the designed full factorial procedure where pulse on-time and pulse current are used as the input parameters. It was found that material removal rate (MRR) increases with increase in current and pulse duration, but MRR is higher during machining of aluminum than that of copper. In term of tool wear rate (TWR) it is found that the TWR resulting of machining copper is lower than aluminum.



Kinematic synthesis of planar, shape-changing rigid body mechanisms for slat design profile.

Pages 65-66
M.H. Ismail, S.A. Shamsudin, M.N. Sudin
PDF (263 KB)

This paper presents a kinematic procedure to synthesize planar mechanisms that are capable of approximating a shape change defined by a set of morphed slat design profiles. This work applies a chain of rigid bodies connected by revolute and prismatic joints that can approximate a general set of design profiles that have significant differences in arc length. To achieve a single degree of freedom (DOF), a building-block approach is employed to mechanize the fixed-end shape-changing chain with the helped of Geometric Constraint Programming technique as an effective method to develop the mechanism.



Optimizing PID controller for an electro-hydraulic servo system via gradient descent technique.

Pages 67-68
C.C. Soon, R. Ghazali, H.I. Jaafar, S.Y.S. Hussien
PDF (244 KB)

This paper presents the basic knowledge in optimizing parameters of PID controller for an electro-hydraulic servo (EHS) system. Based on the Ziegler-Nichols tuning method, the obtained PID controller parameters were implemented in the physical model of EHS system. Then, an optimization technique which known as Gradient Descent is utilized using the MATLAB Simulink library. The findings show significant improvement in EHS tracking performance for both step and sinusoidal reference signal by applying the presented optimization technique.



Body to ground improvement at trim and form machine in end-of-line process.

Pages 69-70
M.H. Mohtar, S. Maidin
PDF (158 KB)

The purpose of this study is to make an improvement on the design of the Jig for the Dpak trim and form machine which is one of the End-of-Line (EOL) process at Infineon Technologies (Malaysia) in Melaka. The objective of this research is to improve the design of the Jig so that the trim and form machines number of rejected units could be reduced. The target of improvement is to reduce the Body to Ground (BTG) problem and yield losses from 0.12% to 0.02%. The objective is to achieve an output target of 99.7% as per organization target.  The focus of this study is the output track at the off-loading of the machine. The study has made suggestions to improve the track design. The track design has been improved by inserting a jig into the off-loader track. The jig will sort the rejected BTG unit. The cycle time for BTG detection have been improved tremendously into 60 seconds. The redesigned jig has also saved the cost from high rates of rejects.



Performance on tensile properties of GFRP stacking sequence using Taguchi method.

Pages 71-72
M.A. Md Ali, A.K. Khamis, N.I.S. Hussein, R.I. Raja Abdullah, M.S. Kasim, M.H. Abu Bakar, E. Mohamad, M.A. Sulaiman
PDF (303 KB)

The performance of glass fibre direction on tensile strength (sTS) and modulus (ETS) was studied. The GFRP sequence directions of -45o, 0o, 45o and 90o were lay-up in five levels and symmetrical laminated. The specimens follow ASTM D638 type II. Orthogonal arrays design of Taguchi method was applied and the data was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). It is found that the most GFRP sequence direction affected the tensile properties is fibre layup at direction of 0o while at -45o, 45o and 90o show less significant. Result after validation of optimum parameter for sTS reduces to 1.59% however ETS value was unchanged after validation process.



Design of slanted glass injection mould for flow visualization of molten plastic.

Pages 73-74
M.A. Md Ali, M.F. Khalik, S. Subramonian, Z. Abdullah, R. Jaafar, P.J. Liew, M.S. Abdul Aziz
PDF (226 KB)

A modified two-plate injection plastic mould having a new method of embedded slanted glass at mould cavity side was designed where it can be used to visualize the flow of molten material moving inside the mould cavity. The slanted glass mould was design and fabricated in order to find whether the flow pattern of the molten plastic material fills the cavity area affected the product quality. Through glass observation window, the flow pattern of molten plastics can be detected and the relations between machine parameters and the responses, i.e, weldline, sink mark and air burble, can be investigated in order to produce better quality of plastic products.



Design of semi-auto line for gula Melaka processing.

Pages 75-76
K.A. Azlan, T. Manoharan, H. Zainuddin, J. Basiron, M.K.M. Nor, F.R. Ramli
PDF (201 KB)

Gula Melaka is broadly used in ASEAN, mainly for cooking. The demands are impressive but the current production capacity is not enough. Hence, a new semi-auto line is design to replace traditional method to shorten its processing time. A thorough study is conducted for improvement and several new design concepts have been put into consideration. The final selected concept operates with manual pouring process and the remaining processes are in automatic mode. Design of mould, cooling time reduction, and automatic transporting and demoulding process enables the production capacity to increase by 500 %.



Integrated recycle system concept for low cost 3D-printer sustainability.

Pages 77-78
F.R. Ramli, M.I. Jailani, H.Unjar, M.R. Alkahari, M.A. Abdullah
PDF (201 KB)

Plastic prototypes that are produced by a low cost 3d printing process may contribute to the increases of plastic waste due to its post-process or from the waste from prototype building error. In this paper, with the goal to sustain and reuse the plastic waste, a recycle system which integrated to the low cost 3D-printer was proposed. This system concept which consisted of 13 parts was designed and analyzed by computer modelling and computer aided engineering software. Afterwards, most parts were built by 3D printer before they were assembled together and attached to the low cost 3D printer in order to prove the working design concept. From the result of the analysis, it shows that all parts were safe to produce where the factor safeties were in the range of 3 to 10 and the working concept of the system was proven.

Theme 7: Mechatronic Engineering


Forward-chaining approach to expert system for machine maintenance.

Pages 79-80
S.N. Mohamad, A.Y. Bani Hashim
PDF (249 KB)

This paper is about the machine maintenance of the Square Foiling Machine. Maintenance of the machine relates to the concern of controlling the condition of equipment. Most of the peoples used checklists to store the information but, since technology improved, there is a system that more reliable in maintenance management. There is an expert system that emulates human making decision ability. Knowledge of educated person and the experience of experts will be combined with a particular justification until a perfect decision achieved. Inference Techniques used is forward chaining method to draw the antecedent and consequent of the domain problems. The expert system will be written by using the Python language with graphical user interface (GUI).



Decoding wrist gesture with combinational logic for the development of a practical EMG electrode sleeve.

Pages 81-82
Z. Fu, A.Y. Bani Hashim, Z. Jamaludin, I.S Mohamad
PDF (444 KB)

One of the reasons why EMG still lags as a machine input signal is because EMG is a physiological signal and differs between individuals. As a result, EMG devices also require training regardless whether it is a single user or multiple users.  It is hypothesized that although the EMG signals are different among individuals, they still contain some similar traits that have potential for cross-user reusability. The characteristics of an EMG signal are studied across a sample of subjects. These signals are recorded and analyzed for similarities.



Application of defect detection in gluing line using shape-based matching approach.

Pages 83-84
Mohamad Haniff Harun, Khalil Azha Mohd Annuar, Aminurrashid Noordin, Mohd Hanif Che Hasan, Muhammad Salihin Saealal, Mohd Firdaus Mohd Ab Halim, Muhammad Fareq Ibrahim
PDF (356 KB)

This paper investigates various approaches for automated inspection of gluing process using shape-based matching application. A new supervised defect detection approach to detect gap defect, bumper defect and bubble defect in gluing application is proposed. The creation of region of interest for important region of the object is further explained. The Correlation algorithm to determine better image processing result using template matching techniques is also proposed. This technique does not only reduce execution time, but also produce high accuracy in defect detection rate. The recognition efficiency will achieve more than 95% with defect’s data for further process.



Investigation of sway angle characteristics in gantry crane system by PSD analysis.

Pages 85-86

S.Y.S. Hussien, R. Ghazali, H.I. Jaafar, C.C. Soon
PDF (507 KB)

This paper attempts the investigation of the 2D-gantry crane system which focused on the sway angle characteristics via Power Spectral Density (PSD) analysis. The dynamic model of the nonlinear gantry crane system is derived by using Lagrange Equation. The system is simulated in MATLAB environment and the result is presented in the form of time and frequency domain. A comparative assessment of the various payload mass and rope length of the system performance is assessed and discussed.



Hopping peak height algorithm for a one legged robot hopping height control.

Pages 87-88

A.H. Azahar, S.H. Chong, A.M. Kassim  
PDF (344 KB)

This paper presents the hopping peak height algorithm in controlling the hopping height of a one legged hopping robot. The hopping mechanism produces continuous and rhythmic pattern. The continuous and rhythmic pattern behaviors produce oscillation feedback to the closed loop system and continuously produce oscillation error to the controller. Therefore, hopping peak height algorithm is designed and embedded into the closed loop control system feedback to determine the hopping peak of each produced hopping as a feedback. The existence of the hopping peak height algorithm assists the PI-CPG controller to converge the hopping height error approximately to zero.

Theme 8: Noise, Vibration and Harshness


Experimental investigation on the road transmitted vibration of a mountain bicycle

Pages 89-90
A.Y. Ismail, M.F.A.M. Shukri, M.A.A. Johar
PDF (673 KB)

This paper presents an experimental investigation on the road transmitted vibration on a mountain bicycle through a field test. It is purposely to determine the cycling comfort which is commonly represented by the vibration magnitude of the bike. The result shows that the cycling comfort is significantly affected by the roughness condition of the road but on the other hand only small effect is obtained from different tire size.



Investigation on reed Imperata Cylindrica as sound absorber.

Pages 91-92
F.A. Khair, A. Putra, M.J.M. Nor, N. Atiqah
PDF (389 KB)

The particles from synthetic fiber that are commonly used in sound absorber are very harmful to human health and environment when exposed to the air. Thus, researchers is now focus towards finding the potential of natural materials as alternative sound absorber. This paper presents the use of hollow structure of natural reed as non-fibrous acoustic absorber. Impedance tube method was used to measure the sound absorption coefficient of natural reed. Reed of length 2 cm and 3 cm were arranged in two different configuration: axial and transverse arrangement. The results showed that reed layered with thickness 2 cm in transverse arrangement gives better sound absorption compare to others with absorption coefficient reaches almost 1 at around 1.8kHz. For transverse arrangement, introduction of microholes to the structure of reed only shifts the absorption peak towards lower frequency.



Fundamental model of structure-borne vibration transmission in building using portal frame approach.

Pages 93-94
Y.M. Cheah, A. Putra, N. Muhammad, R. Ramlan
PDF (327 KB)

Vibration coming from mechanical services are often the source structure-borne noise sources in buildings. The transmitted vibration waves from these machines can activate the building structures to vibrate and radiate audible low frequency noise inside the building. This paper proposes the development of a generic analytical model of a 2D portal frame structure consisting of column and beam elements. The proposed model is use to predict the structural response of a multi-story portal frame building in order to understand the behavior of the structure with propagating vibration waves. The result is validated using the FE model which gives good agreement.   


Preliminary study on sound absorption of natural kenaf fiber.

Pages 95-96
Z.Y. Lim, A. Putra, M.J.M. Nor, M.Y. Yaakob
PDF (682 KB)

The increasing number of researches on utilizing natural fibers for acoustic panel to cater environmental and health problems has led to the study of the natural kenaf fibers. Several parameters such as thickness and air gaps are studied and measurement using impedance tube shows that kenaf fiber are feasible to be used as substitute for synthetic material as the absorption coefficient are found to be greater than 0.5 starting at the low frequency region for most cases.  


Mobility of rectangular plate with constraint and unconstraint edges.

Pages 97-98
K.H. Lim, A. Putra, R. Ramlan
PDF (787 KB)

Several theories have been established in calculating the mobility of rectangular plate. However, there is still a lacking of discussion on the mobility of plate with various boundary conditions. In this paper, modal summation approach is used to present the mobility of rectangular plates with various constraint and unconstraint edges to discuss their effect on the level of vibration across the frequency range. It is found that at very low frequency (1-20 Hz) that the more constraint the edges the lower the mobility. 


Oil palm empty fruit bunch fibers as sustainable acoustic material.

Pages 99-100
K.H. Or, A. Putra, M.Z. Selamat
PDF (471 KB)

Environmental issues such as pollutions have created awareness among the scientists to find sustainable and ‘green’ materials as alternative sound absorber to replace synthetic materials. Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) is a biodegradable material and is available in abundance quantity as agricultural by-products. This paper discusses the use of OPEFB fibers as an acoustic absorber. Samples of raw OPEFB fibers with different mass and thickness are fabricated. The effect of fiber density and air gap are investigated through experiment to obtain the sound absorption coefficient. It is found that OPEFB fibers showed good performance as an acoustic material. 



Reciprocity method in small acoustic space to measure sound radiation from baffled perforated plates.

Pages 101-102
N. Shyafina, A. Putra, Z.Y. Lim, N. Muhammad
PDF (572 KB)

Reciprocity method has been used widely in vibro-acoustics especially to measure sound power from vibrating structures. One existing method is the measurement under a reverberant condition inside a reverberation chamber. This paper discusses the reciprocity method implemented in a small acoustic box rather than using a proper, large acoustic chamber. The result shows the radiation efficiency of perforated baffled plate with different number of holes and different perforation ratios to have good agreement between the measured data and the theory.


Double layered micro-perforated panel as acoustic absorber in mosque.

Pages 103-104
D. Hafizah, A. Putra, M.J.M. Noor, M.S. Py 
PDF (473 KB)

Poor speech intelligibility in large mosque is still a classical problem in many cases to due to lack of consideration for its acoustic performance in the architectural design of the mosque’s interior. This paper presents the assessment of indoor acoustics performance of a mosque by using CATT acoustic software. Double layered micro-perforated panel as the acoustic absorber is introduced. It is aimed at discussing the possibility to utilize the micro-perforated panels, which is new for mosque application instead of the typical porous, fibrous absorbers or the conventional Helmholtz resonator. The results show that the micro-perforated panels successfully reduce the reverberation time at low frequencies which can improve the speech intelligibility in a mosque.


Noise analysis in Malaysian passenger car cabin.

Pages 105-106
M.A. Abdullah, J.F. Jamil, N. Basrah, A. Putra, M.A. Salim  
PDF (460 KB)

In this paper, experimental study on noise analysis in cabin of a 1.3 cc passenger car is performed. The noise is recorded using sound level meter at 3 different places, namely, at the hand brake, near the drivers’ pedals and at the bottom of front passengers’ seat. The experimental study is performed at different engine speeds at static and dynamic conditions with and without air conditioner switched on. The data is analyzed and discussed for comparison. The noise distribution in the passenger cabin is generated at 3 locations. From the results, it is shown that, different locations give different density of noise. The passengers’ noise comfort level is still achieved with and without air conditioning.



Variability of vibration input power to a beam structure.

Pages 107-108
N.F. Saari, A. Putra, H. Bakri, R. Md Dan  
PDF (447 KB)

Structure-borne source which transmits vibration power to the supporting structure especially in buildings plays a major role in contributing the noise pollution and this remains a challenging problem for noise treatment. In practice however, the lack of knowledge of phase of the excitation force from the structure-borne source creates variability in the input power. This paper discusses the quantification of the frequency-averaged mean and variance from the variability in the input power for the case of two excitation point forces to a beam structure. It is found that quantification of the frequency-average variability from a finite beam structure can be approached by using that from the corresponding infinite beam structure.


Analysis on degree of nonlinearity in hardening nonlinear system of a vibration based energy harvesting device.

Pages 109-110
P.S. Low, R. Ramlan, N.S. Muhammad, H.A. Ghani   
PDF (591 KB)

Analytical analysis is used to quantify the degree of nonlinearity in nonlinear hardening system in order to validate the usage of linear electromechanical coupling on weakly nonlinear hardening system. Approximate solution of harmonic balance method and multiple scales method is applied and both methods show the important effect of higher harmonics on the degree of nonlinearity.

Theme 9: Non-Destructive Testing & Structural Mechanics


Study on corrosion features analysis for visual inspection & monitoring system: A NDT technique.

Pages 111-112
Syahril Anuar Idris, Fairul Azni Jafar, Nurhidayu Abdullah
PDF (441 KB)

These days, utilization of camera as inspection tools has been expanded. The flexibility functions of camera fit to get different kind of information. This research work is focusing on developing a robust visual inspection system for NDT corrosion detection that able to detect corrosion in any environment, and the corrosion detection will be using visual data as principal data inspection.   



Analytical work of honeycomb based on single ring hexagonal ring subjected to quasi-static lateral loading. 

Pages 113-114
M.R. Said, A.J. Chuli  
PDF (680 KB)

Over the years, there are many experimental works done in order to investigate the effect of lateral loading on honeycomb. The works however were only validated by using software such as Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and ABAQUS. This paper attempted to validate the result of the experiment by using the single theory on a single hexagonal ring compressed across face which was developed by previous researcher. It is found that the difference between theoretical and experimental value for the compression across faces is 22.46%.  

Theme 10: Renewable Energy


Low-NOX combustion of biogas from palm oil mill effluent using flameless combustion. 

Pages 115-116
Afiqah Hamzah, Abuelnuor Abdeen Ali Abuelnour, Mazlan Abdul Wahid 
PDF (534 KB)

An experimental study of flameless combustion in a laboratory-scale furnace using natural gas, simulated biogas and palm-oil-mill-effluent (POME) derived biogas. Flameless combustion regime is achieved for natural gas, simulated biogas and POME biogas. POME biogas flameless combustion has slightly lower average furnace temperature (2.69% reduction) due to increased inert gas in the furnace chamber. Flameless combustion produce larger and more uniform combustion area (Rtu = 0.097) compared to conventional flame combustion (Rtu = 0.21). NOX emission measurement has shown reduced NOX emission in flameless combustion of natural gas, POME biogas and simulated biogas with average of 6 ppm.    


Engineering design on food waste composting bin.

Pages 117-118
S.N. Khalil, K.A. Zulkifli
PDF (367 KB)

Green technology has been imprinted in our country to gain better future or greener future for our future generations. It is part of our hidden duty to prepare good platform for them to lead on and continually taking care of our earth. Composting is one of the steps towards that greener future. Composting is known as one of the method or solution for wastes around the world. However, it is neither a familiar word nor action in Malaysia and specifically in Universiti Teknikal Malaysia, Melaka. Composting can avoid landfills to be filled with wastes that can be reuse and recycle thus can reduce the usage of incinerator. This research will explain on the benefits of composting and how the process will be done as well as the phases and important parameters. In order to implement it in the University, a conceptual design was made based on the current designs that are already in the market and some new designs were sketched and design using the CATIA software. The material selection for the parts was done using the CES Edupack software and analysis was made as well as the costing of the model to apply the concept according to the University’s environment.   



Binary mixture of the decanter cake and fiber from the oil palm industry waste as a potential solid fuel.

Pages 119-120
Mohd Haizal Mohd Husin, Ting Sze Choi, Nur Haziqah Mohd Ruzmi, Imran Syakir Mohamad
PDF (545 KB)

This study relates to the production of solid fuel using waste products from the palm oil processing industry. Enclosed, the purpose of the study was to produce solid fuel from a binary mixture of decanter cake with the palm fiber. The sample was created based on decanter cake: fiber weight ratio, weight of loading and type of fiber. The sample were shaped into hexagons (radius= 2.34cm and length 8.0 cm). The sample prepared was tested for moisture contents, compression and calorific value. The study found out that the best mixture ratio among all of the sample ratio were decanter cake:fiber (70:30) with the highest compression test (2016 N) and nearest calorific value (4508 cal/g) compared to the commercial solid fuel which the compression test was 2390 N and calorific was 5321 cal/g.  


Study the performance of single cylinder spark ignition engine for gasoline and compressed natural gas.

Pages 121-122
M.Z. Yunus, M.T. Musthafah, M.Z. Akop
PDF (305 KB)

Due to the unsteady oil prices, shortage continuity of fossil fuel and an emission crisis, automobile manufactured was motivated to find the solution for improve the efficiency of fuel. One of the factors that influence the performance of vehicle engine is the type of fuel used to complete the combustion. In this paper the study about combustion of mixture inside the cylinder is applied. Two types of fuel are tested that is gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG) in four stroke single cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine. Based on the result, shows that CNG produce 6% lower of pressure compared to gasoline during power stroke. In addition the gasoline also leads in power and torque respectively on average by 15.8% and 16.3 %.


Performance and emission characteristics of castor blends biodiesel in single cylinder diesel engine dynamometer.

Pages 123-124
Mohd Zaini Jamaludin, Safarudin Gazali Herawan, Yusmady Mohamed Arifin
PDF (433 KB)

This study presents a preliminary investigation of engine is running on petro-diesel in order to determine the engine’s operating characteristics and exhaust emission levels, constituting the base line that is compared with corresponding cases when using second generation biodiesel that used castor biodiesel consists of 5%, 10% and 20% blends. The engine coupled to hydraulic dynamometer through belting connection for load measurement. The same method will be repeated for each fuel blend by keeping the same operating condition. The present studies contribute as an alternative fuel by using biodiesel fuels from non-edible for diesel engines with standard engine parts.



Hardware design multi-sources light electric vehicles.

Pages 125-126
F.A. Azidin, Z.A. Ghani, M.A. Hannan, Azah Mohamed
PDF (524 KB)

Combination of battery, proton exchange membrane fuel cell (FC) and super-capacitor (SC) as energy sources for light electric vehicle (LEV), or better referred to as multi-sources LEV has the purpose to improve vehicle performance and surpass battery drawbacks.  Power coordination is designed by implementing intelligent switching hardware in energy management system (EMS) control circuit board. The EMS hardware circuit is integrated with dSPACE/ DS1104 down-scaled model for LEV.  The accumulated results show that multi-sources LEV delivered better power efficiency than a single-powered battery LEV.  This research could be beneficial to automobile industries in the future.



On the dynamics of a beam-SDOF energy harvester system.

Pages 127-128
S. Susilo, A. Putra, K.S. Leong, M.J.M. Nor
PDF (436 KB)

Dynamic model of a beam attached at the mass of a single-degree-of-freedom system is presented in this paper. The structural wave propagation method is used leading to solution of complex wave amplitudes across the beam. The proposed model is aimed at characterizing the behavior of the system to study the potential electrical energy harvested from such mechanism where the beam is a piezoelectric material.



Relationships derived from physical properties of waste cooking oil / diesel blends and biodiesel fuels.

Pages 129-130
M.I. Ali, J. Faezah
PDF (313 KB)

The aim of this study is to estimate mathematical relationships of vital fuel properties of waste cooking oil/diesel blends and biodiesel fuels. The origin of both waste cooking oil (WCO) and biodiesel (BD) are from palm oil to keep the uniformity of this study. To find the fuel properties, experiments are carried out to acquire data for each blend sample. The samples of blends prepared are ranging from 10% to 100% for both WCO and BD blend with diesel respectively. Mathematical relationships for each fuel property for WCO/Diesel and BD/Diesel blends are produced with their respective coefficient of determination denoted as R². The results have shown that the properties of the fuel mainly have polynomial relationships. 



Broadening the bandwidth of energy harvesting devices by using different magnet configurations.

Pages 131-132
H.A. Ghani, R. Ramlan, M.J.A. Latif, P.S. Low
PDF (503 KB)

A nonlinear generator was originally intended to overcome the limitation of a linear resonant generator that is having small bandwidth. This paper presents the experimental results to illustrate the dynamic monostable behaviour of the nonlinear generator using magnetic levitation concept. A device was built to investigate the effectiveness of the different magnets configurations on the dynamics under harmonic excitation. The results show that the softening and hardening behaviours of the system due to the magnetic stiffness produce a broader bandwidth response. 

Theme 11: Surface Engineering and Coatings


The evaluation of machinability and surface roughness in conventional vertical milling machine.

Pages 133-134
M.A.M. Daud, W.T. Ng, D.L. Sivakumar, M.Z. Selamat
PDF (491 KB)

The purposes of this research are to analysis the machinability and surface finish of different types of material with high speed steel cutting tool using conventional milling machine and study the effect of machining parameter on quality of surface finish of different types of material. In addition, the materials have been used in this research are aluminum, stainless steel and brass. The machining parameters have been chosen are feed rate and spindle speed. While for the cutting tool in this research is high speed steel end mill. After milling process and surface roughness test have been conducted, the result of each test specimen will be compared and find the optimized machining parameter of each types of material by analyzing the value of surface roughness. The optimized machinability and surface finish is stainless steel at feed rate of 37 mm/min and spindle speed of 1400 rpm.



Study on surface diffusion of an effective powder-pack boronizing.

Pages 135-136
N.H. Omar, R. Hasan, S.M.M. Shahidan, N.R. Morjani, M.H. Kamaludin
PDF (558 KB)

Boronizing is a surface treatment which is currently well developed in the industry to produce a super hard and good wear resistant surface layer on the metallic substrate. In this study, 10 mm diameter 316 stainless-steel ball bearings will be used as the specimens. Boronizing treatments will be done for 2, 4 and 6 hours in furnace at temperature 850, 900 and 950 oC using Ekabor 1. Powder conditions and powder pack surrounding will be studied in these experiments in order to analyze the effective powder usage for the treatment. The boronized surface will be characterized using optical microscope, SEM analysis, and hardness Rockwell indenter. The kinetic diffusion of boron will be determined from activation energy analysis using Arrhenius equation.



Comparative study of surface roughness in milling AISI D2 steel using PVD coated and uncoated tungsten carbide insert.

Pages 137-138
B.I. Redzuwan, M.S.A. Aziz, M.F. Ayub, M.S. Kasim, R. Izamshah, M. Amran
PDF (525 KB)

This paper comparatively investigates the effect of cutting speed and feed rate on the surface roughness of AISI D2 steel using uncoated and PVD coated inserts in milling operation under dry condition. The response surface methodology (RSM) with a Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed in the experiment to determine the optimum control variables which are cutting speed and feed rate. The optimum condition required for obtaining the minimum surface roughness when milling AISI D2 steel was cutting speed of 100.38 m/min, feed rate of 0.1 mm/tooth, axial depth of cut of 1.5 mm and radial depth of cut of 2.5 mm using PVD coated insert which resulted in a surface roughness of 0.129 µm.

Theme 12: Others Related Topic


Comparison of camera calibration method for a vision based mesoscale measurement system.

Pages 139-140
A.R.K. Anuar, H. Hanizam, S. Mohd Rizal, N. Nazrul Anuar
PDF (288 KB)

This research compared three types of CCD camera calibration techniques namely Bouget’s Calibration Toolbox, Zhang’s Calibration Toolbox and Heikkilla’s Calibration Toolbox. Experimental data for both calibration and optimization were collected to further explain the experimental results. Statistical analyses such as T-Test and ANOVA were conducted on the collected data using Minitab and EXCEL software. The results of this research indicated that the best calibration technique (toolbox) for calibrating Omron F500 CCD Camera for the purpose of measuring dimensions of meso-scale component is the Heikkilla’s Calibration Toolbox.



Analysis of body dynamic posture to detect body discomfort by using a webcam and python image histogram.

Pages 141-142
N.S.A. Ramdan, A.Y. Bani Hashim, Seri Rahayu Kamat, Siti Azirah Asmai 
PDF (471 KB)

Nowadays, in factory, manual workers dynamic posture can be recorded by CCTV, but cannot be scientifically analyzed. In this paper, the authors have shown a method to do analysis of human dynamic posture. The purpose of the analysis is to know the sign of body discomfort of the workers after some period of time. The analysis is done by using image histogram and Python software.



Development of innovation in Malaysian traditional palm sugar cooking machine.

Pages 143-144
R. Hasan, S.A. Shamsudin, N. Muhammad, N. Tamaldin, H. Ali, M.I. Jaafar, T.E. Tengku Mansor, F.Z. Zainuri, N.S.A. Abdul Razak
PDF (513 KB)

The research objective is to propose a new method of palm sugar cooking which is more efficient as compared to that of traditional method in Malaysia. Amongst activities in achieving the objective are data collections of traditional process, development of microcontroller and heating element, as well as design of cooking mechanism. In the new method, raw palm sugar is heated by using an electrical heater which is embedded around outer side of cooking pot and temperature is maintained by using a controller in order to produce a more uniform process. A stirrer is equipped in the pot in order to mix the ingredients uniformly. It is found that the new heating process can be used to cook the palm sugar without leaving crust at the bottom part of the pot. A controlled temperature is found beneficial for cooking time estimation.



A humanoid robot for autism rehabilitation: Does IQ influence response in child-robot interaction?

Pages 145-146
S. Shamsuddin, H. Yussof, F.A. Hanapiah, S. Mohamed  
PDF (452 KB)

Recent advances show that robots have unlimited potential to help the disabled community by providing physical support, social engagement and even co-therapy in collaboration with another human. For children with autism, a robot in human shape might be able to help them to learn better and encourage social-communication skills. To prove this, the key initial step is to explore the initial response of children with autism when they interact with a humanoid robot in an experimental setting. We hypothesize that a robot’s presence coupled with specific interplay shall attract the children's attention to engage in robot-based interaction. The initial responses will be utilized to seek association between responses to the robot with the children's intelligence level. Twelve autistic children with IQs between 44 and 107 were exposed to different interactions. Behavior evaluation showed that in the presence of the robot, lower autistic traits were recorded in the subscale of stereotyped behavior and communication. Also, children with IQs higher than 80 were more receptive to robot-based single exposure.



A comparative study for concrete strength prediction using Fuzzy modeling and Neuro-Fuzzy modeling techniques.

Pages 147-149
S.S. Syed Ahmad
PDF (665 KB)

In this study, a comparative study of concrete strength prediction have been carried out by using three different models called type-1 fuzzy model, type-2 fuzzy model, and neuro-fuzzy model. These three models have been applied for concrete strength prediction of ready mix concrete based on its design mix constituents, namely cement, blast furnace slag, fly ash, water, superplasticizer, coarse aggregate, and age. Three different statistical performance measures have been used for evaluating the models. The experimental results show that type-2 fuzzy model give a better performance measures. 

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